Update of the 2014 Systematic Review of Facilitated Communication finds no new evidence on authorship

In 2018, the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Facilitated Communication and Rapid Prompting Method released the Position Statements against FC and RPM. ASHA also published FAQs on the two position statements.

ASHA supports interventions and services leading to independent communication.

“Facilitated Communication (FC)—also referred to as “Assisted Typing,” “Facilitated Communication Training,” and “Supported Typing”—is a technique that involves a person with a disability pointing to letters, pictures, or objects on a keyboard or on a communication board, typically with physical support from a “facilitator.” This physical support usually occurs on the hand, wrist, elbow, or shoulder (Biklen, Winston Morton, Gold, Berrigan, & Swaminathan, 1992) or on other parts of the body.” (ASHA Position Statement on FC, 2018).

The new 2018 systematic review of authorship in FC, locating 18 peer-reviewed studies in English that provide no new evidence of authorship, is published free access here.


Full Reference: Hemsley, B., Bryant, L., Schlosser, R., Shane, H. C., Lang, R., Paul, D., Banajee, M., & Ireland, M. (First published 2018). Systematic review of facilitated communication 2014–2018 finds no new evidence that messages delivered using facilitated communication are authored by the person with disability. Autism and Developmental Language Impairments. (Early online)

“To determine suitability for evaluating authorship, the same categories of papers were used to classify the papers about FC, as those described in Schlosser et al. (2014):

  1. Level one papers were studies and reviews that provided quantitative experimental data that related to the authorship of the messages were included for level one analysis. Quantitative experimental studies (or systematic reviews of such studies) involved an a priori controlled manipulation of knowledge/stimuli presented to the facilitator and FC used by the individual in an attempt to empirically establish who was authoring the messages produced in response to the stimuli. These studies are suitable for evaluating authorship in FC.
  2. Level two papers were studies and reviews that included quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through the process of FC without a priori testing of authorship (i.e. without empirical manipulation related to authorship). These studies are not suitable for evaluating authorship.
  3. Level three papers were studies with qualitative descriptive data on the output generated through the process of FC without pretesting of authorship, and qualitative research methods such as participant observations and interviews. These studies are not suitable for evaluating authorship.
  4. Level four papers were those representing anecdotal reports written by individuals using FC, individuals who previously used FC, facilitators, former facilitators and others sharing their perspectives on FC. These papers are not suitable for evaluating authorship.

These were the articles reviewed by Hemsley et al., (2018) as not providing any evidence regarding authorship in FC:

Level 3: Qualitative studies. 3 papers (2014-2015) met the criteria for being level 3 studies.

  1. Ashby, C., Jung, E., Woodfield, C., Vroman, K., Orsati, F. (2015‘Wishing to go it alone’: The complicated interplay of independence, interdependence and agency. Disability & Society 30(10): 14741489. doi:10.1080/09687599.2015.1108901. [Qualitative, Level 3 study].
  2. Wilson, M., de Jonge, D., de Souza, N., Carlson, G. (2014Facilitated communication training: Exploration of perceptions of ability and reducing physical support. Disability Studies Quarterly 34(1). [Qualitative, Level 3 study].
  3. Woodfield, C., Jung, E., Ashby, C. (2014“Hoping for Greatness”: Exploring the notion of “novicity” in communication support partnerships. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 39(4): 274289. doi:10.1177/1540796914566710. [Qualitative, Level 3 study].

Level 4: Anecdotal Reports and Commentaries. In total, 15 papers (dated 2014–2016) met the criteria for being level four papers:

  1. Agran, M. (2014Facilitated communication: A house divided. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 39(3): 175177. doi:10.1177/1540796914558830.
  2. Cardinal, D. N., Falvey, M. A. (2014The maturing of facilitated communication: A means toward independent communication. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 39(3): 189194. doi:10.1177/1540796914555581.
  3. Chan, J., Nankervis, K. (2014Stolen voices: Facilitated communication is an abuse of human rights. Evidence Based Communication Assessment and Intervention 8(3): 151156. doi:10.1080/17489539.2014.1001549.
  4. Hemsley, B., Dann, S. (2014Social media and social marketing in relation to facilitated communication: Harnessing the affordances of social media for knowledge translation. Evidence Based Communication Assessment and Intervention 8(4): 187206. doi:10.1080/17489539.2015.1023988.
  5. Lilienfeld, S. O., Marshall, J., Todd, J. T., Shane, H. C. (2014The persistence of fad interventions in the face of negative scientific evidence: Facilitated communication for autism as a case example. Evidence Based Communication Assessment and Intervention 8(2): 62101. doi:10.1080/17489539.2014.976332.
  6. Mirenda, P. (2014Comments and a personal reflection on the persistence of facilitated communication. Evidence Based Communication Assessment and Intervention 8(2): 102110. doi:10.1080/17489539.2014.997427.
  7. Mostert, M. P. (2001Facilitated communication since 1995: A review of published studies. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31(3): 287313. doi:10.1023/A:1010795219886.
  8. Mostert, M. P. (2010Facilitated communication and its legitimacy – Twenty-first century developments. Exceptionality 18(1): 3141. doi:10.1080/09362830903462524.
  9. Sherry, M. (2016Facilitated communication, Anna Stubblefield and disability studies. Disability & Society 31(7): 974982. doi:10.1080/09687599.2016.1218152.
  10. Singer, G. H. S., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Wang, M. (2014Standards of proof: TASH, facilitated communication, and the science-based practices movement. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 39(3): 178188. doi:10.1177/1540796914558831
  11. Tostanoski, A., Lang, R., Raulston, T., Carnett, A., Davis, T. (2014Voices from the past: Comparing the rapid prompting method and facilitated communication. Developmental Neurorehabilitation 17(4): 219223. doi:10.3109/17518423.2012.749952.
  12. Travers, J. C., Ayres, K. M. (2015A critique of presuming competence of learners with autism or other developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities 50(4): 371387.
  13. Travers, J. C., Tincani, M. J., Lang, R. (2014Facilitated communication denies people with disabilities their voice. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities 39(3): 195202. doi:10.1177/1540796914556778.
  14. Trembath, D., Paynter, J., Keen, D., Ecker, U. K. H. (2015“Attention: Myth Follows!” Facilitated communication, parent and professional attitudes towards evidence-based practice, and the power of misinformation. Evidence Based Communication Assessment and Intervention 9(3): 113126. doi:10.1080/17489539.2015.1103433.
  15. Wombles, K. (2014Some fads never die-they only hide behind other names: Facilitated communication is not and never will be augmentative and alternative communication. Evidence Based Communication Assessment and Intervention 8(4): 181186. doi:10.1080/17489539.2015.1012780.

Excluded Studies (Total N = 116).

These studies were excluded at screening stage – Not relating to FC (n = 104)
  1. Adams, A.M.N., T. Mannix, and A. Harrington, Nurses’ communication with families in the intensive care unit – a literature review. Nursing in Critical Care, 2017. 22(2): p. 70-80.
  2. Aditi, M. Shariff, and K. Beri, Exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas monteilii: a case report. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2017. 17: p. 1-4.
  3. Akard, T.F., et al., Digital storytelling: an innovative legacy-making intervention for children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 2015. 62(4): p. 658-65.
  4. Akram, F., H.-S. Han, and T.-S. Kim, A P300-based brain computer interface system for words typing. Computers in Biology & Medicine, 2014. 45: p. 118-125.
  5. Algilani, S., et al., An interactive ICT platform for early assessment and management of patient-reported concerns among older adults living in ordinary housing-Development and feasibility. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2017. 26(11-12): p. 1575-1583.
  6. Alyami, H. and A.M. Albarrati, Comparison of Spinal Angles in a Typing Task on a Laptop and a Desktop Computer: A Preliminary Study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2016. 70(6): p. 1-8.
  7. Arouna, O., et al., Chryseobacterium gleum in a man with prostatectomy in Senegal: a case report and review of the literature. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2017. 11: p. 1-5.
  8. Asti, L., et al., A quality improvement project to reduce length of stay for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatrics, 2015. 135(6): p. e1494-500.
  9. Baker, A.M., et al., CF RISE: Implementing a Clinic-Based Transition Program. Pediatric Allergy, Immunology & Pulmonology, 2015. 28(4): p. 250-254.
  10. Baranovsky, S., et al., Tracking the spread routes of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens in a haematology unit with water points-of-use protected by antimicrobial filters. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2018. 98(1): p. 53-59.
  11. Bastyr 3rd, E.J., et al., Performance of an Electronic Diary System for Intensive Insulin Management in Global Diabetes Clinical Trials. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 2015. 17(8): p. 571-579.
  12. Baum, N., et al., Social workers’ role in tempering inequality in healthcare in hospitals and clinics: A study in Israel. Health & Social Care in the Community, 2016. 24(5): p. 605-613.
  13. Bilecen, K., et al., Performances and Reliability of Bruker Microflex LT and VITEK MS MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Systems for the Identification of Clinical Microorganisms. BioMed Research International, 2015. 2015: p. 1-18.
  14. Blanchard, J.W., J.T. Petherick, and H. Basara, Stakeholder engagement: a model for tobacco policy planning in Oklahoma Tribal communities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015. 48(1 Suppl 1): p. S44-6.
  15. Brault, I., et al., Implementation of interprofessional learning activities in a professional practicum: The emerging role of technology. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 2015. 29(6): p. 530-535.
  16. Brown, E., et al., Improving phlebotomy handover of untaken blood tests to junior doctors. BMJ Quality Improvement Reports, 2015. 4(1).
  17. Cameron, C.J. and M. Macy, The local dynamics of institutional change. Rationality and Society, 2017. 29(1): p. 69-79.
  18. Canossi, A., et al., Role of KIR and CD16A genotypes in colorectal carcinoma genetic risk and clinical stage. Journal of Translational Medicine, 2016. 14: p. 239-246.
  19. Castelfranco, A.M. and D.K. Hartline, Evolution of rapid nerve conduction. Brain Research, 2016. 1641(Part A): p. 11-33.
  20. Chao, C.-C., et al., Smartphone transmission of electrocardiography images to reduce time of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA, 2017. 26: p. 26.
  21. Cherry, A.S., et al., Postpartum depression screening in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: program development, implementation, and lessons learned. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 2016. 9: p. 59-67.
  22. Cook, B.G., M. Tankersley, and T.J. Landrum, Instructional practices with and without empirical validity, in (2016) Instructional practices with and without empirical validity viii, 219 pp Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing; United Kingdom. 2016.
  23. Desrosiers, J., et al., Curricular initiatives that enhance student knowledge and perceptions of sexual and gender minority groups: a critical interpretive synthesis. Canadian Medical Education Journal [Electronic Resource], 2016. 7(2): p. e121-e138.
  24. Druckenmüller, K., et al., Development of a methodological approach for the characterization of bioaerosols in exhaust air from pig fattening farms with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. International Journal of Hygiene & Environmental Health, 2017. 220(6): p. 974-983.
  25. DuRivage, N., et al., Adoption of a Portal for the Primary Care Management of Pediatric Asthma: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2016. 18(5): p. 172-189.
  26. Eriksson, K., et al., Numeric rating scale: patients’ perceptions of its use in postoperative pain assessments. Applied Nursing Research, 2014. 27(1): p. 41-46.
  27. Fijalkowska, M. and B. Antoszewski, Rare Facial Clefts. Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny, 2015. 87(8): p. 389-94.
  28. Fiks, A.G., et al., Adoption of a Portal for the Primary Care Management of Pediatric Asthma: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2016. 18(6): p. e172.
  29. Foster, C.C., R. Mangione-Smith, and T.D. Simon, Caring for Children with Medical Complexity: Perspectives of Primary Care Providers. Journal of Pediatrics, 2017. 182: p. 275-282.e4.
  30. Fox, D., M. Brittan, and C. Stille, The Pediatric Inpatient Family Care Conference: a proposed structure toward shared decision-making. Hospital Pediatrics, 2014. 4(5): p. 305-10.
  31. Franasiak, J.M., R.T. Jr.Scott, and R.T. Scott, Jr., Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies. Fertility & Sterility, 2015. 104(6): p. 1364-1371.
  32. Furnas, D.W. and L.A. Edmonds, The effect of computerised Verb Network Strengthening Treatment on lexical retrieval in aphasia. Aphasiology, 2014. 28(4): p. 401-420.
  33. Gandhi, M.J., et al., Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing for Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in a Clinical Laboratory: Metrics of Relevance and Considerations for Its Successful Implementation. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 2017. 141(6): p. 806-812.
  34. Garvey, M.I., et al., Outbreak of clonal complex 22 Panton–Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Infection Prevention, 2017. 18(5): p. 224-230.
  35. Garzillo, C., et al., Risk factors for Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infection in a neonatal intensive care unit: a case-control study. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 2017. 43: p. 1-9.
  36. Ghari, Z., Variations in the Baghcheban Manual Alphabet in Iranian Sign Language. Sign Language Studies, 2017. 18(1): p. 73-129.
  37. Hennessy, C.M., et al., Social media and anatomy education: Using Twitter to enhance the student learning experience in anatomy. Anatomical Sciences Education, 2016. 9(6): p. 505-515.
  38. Hobin, J.A., et al., Putting PhDs to work: career planning for today’s scientist. CBE Life Sciences Education [Electronic Resource], 2014. 13(1): p. 49-53.
  39. Huang, H.-Y., et al., Enhancing students’ NOS views and science knowledge using Facebook-based scientific news. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 2014. 17(4): p. 289-301.
  40. Hupp, S. and J. Jewell, Great myths of child development. Great myths of psychology. 2015: (2015) Great myths of child development. 196.
  41. Hutt, E., et al., Addressing the Challenges of Palliative Care for Homeless Veterans. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 2018. 35(3): p. 448-455.
  42. Jackson, K.H. and S.J. Mixer, Using an iPad for Basic Communication Between Spanish-Speaking Families and Nurses in Pediatric Acute Care: A Feasibility Pilot Study. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 2017. 35(8): p. 401-407.
  43. Kassaye, S.G., et al., Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study of SMS Text Messages for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural Kenya. AIDS Research & Treatment, 2016. 2016: p. 1289328.
  44. Kshatriya, A.S. and P.M. Santwani, Comparison of FNAC smears, cytospin smears, and cellblocks of transthoracic guided FNAC of suspected lung tumor: A study of 100 cases. Journal of Cytology, 2016. 33(3): p. 141-144.
  45. Kuenzel, W.J., Mapping the brain of the chicken (Gallus gallus), with emphasis on the septal-hypothalamic region. General & Comparative Endocrinology, 2018. 256: p. 4-15.
  46. Lapinski, M.K., J.A. Funk, and L.T. Moccia, Recommendations for the role of social science research in One Health. Social Science & Medicine, 2015. 129: p. 51-60.
  47. Lawson, T.J. and L.L. Crane, Dowsing rods designed to sharpen critical thinking and understanding of ideomotor action. Teaching of Psychology, 2014. 41(1): p. 52-56.
  48. Lazure, P., et al., Contextualized analysis of a needs assessment using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case example in endocrinology. BMC Health Services Research, 2014. 14: p. 319.
  49. Le, P. and W.S. Marras, Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: Seated, standing, and perching. Applied Ergonomics, 2016. 56: p. 170-178.
  50. Lee Mortensen, G., et al., Quality of life and care needs in women with estrogen positive metastatic breast cancer: a qualitative study. Acta Oncologica, 2018. 57(1): p. 146-151.
  51. Lifson, A.R., et al., Implementation of a Peer HIV Community Support Worker Program in Rural Ethiopia to Promote Retention in Care. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, 2017. 16(1): p. 75-80.
  52. Liu, Y.-L., The application of dance therapy concept to enhancing the emotional intelligence of 8th grade junior high school students-The G. Vico approach. Chinese Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 2017. 48: p. 137-172.
  53. Macpherson, C.F., et al., Feasibility and acceptability of an iPad application to explore symptom clusters in adolescents and young adults with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 2014. 61(11): p. 1996-2003.
  54. Mao, H.-F., et al., Developing a referral protocol for community-based occupational therapy services in Taiwan: A logistic regression analysis. PLoS ONE Vol 11(2), 2016, ArtID e0148414, 2016. 11(2).
  55. McAndrew, B. and M.-P.O. Malley-Keighran, ‘She didn’t have a word of English; we didn’t have a word of Vietnamese’: Exploring parent experiences of communication with toddlers who were adopted internationally. Journal of Communication Disorders, 2017. 68: p. 89-102.
  56. McDermott, H., et al., Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) in The Intensive Care Unit in a Nonoutbreak Setting: Identification of Potential Reservoirs and Epidemiological Associations Between Patient and Environmental VRE. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 2018. 39(1): p. 40-45.
  57. McLeod-Sordjan, R., Death preparedness: A concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2014. 70(5): p. 1008-1019.
  58. McQuillan, R.F., et al., Benefits of a transfer clinic in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant patients. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health & Disease, 2015. 2: p. 45.
  59. Mears, S.C., et al., Effect of an emergency department-based electronic system for musculoskeletal consultation on facilitating care for common injuries. Orthopedics, 2015. 38(5): p. e407-10.
  60. Meredith, J.L., A. Jnah, and D. Newberry, The NICU Environment: Infusing Single-Family Room Benefits into the Open-Bay Setting. Neonatal Network – Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 2017. 36(2): p. 69-76.
  61. Miller, C.K., et al., Swallowing dynamics status post caustic ingestion in a pediatric patient: A multidisciplinary case report. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 2016. 86: p. 4-8.
  62. Montemayor-Garcia, C., et al., Acquired RhD mosaicism identifies fibrotic transformation of thrombopoietin receptor-mutated essential thrombocythemia. Transfusion, 2017. 57(9): p. 2136-2139.
  63. Moore, G., et al., Whole-genome sequencing in hierarchy with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: the utility of this approach to establish possible sources of MRSA cross-transmission. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2015. 90(1): p. 38-45.
  64. Nayar, V., et al., Improving Cardiac Surgical Site Infection Reporting and Prevention By Using Registry Data for Case Ascertainment. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2016. 101(1): p. 190-8; discussion 198-9.
  65. Omrani, A.S. and S. Shalhoub, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): what lessons can we learn? Journal of Hospital Infection, 2015. 91(3): p. 188-96.
  66. Palumbo, M.V., et al., Teaching Electronic Health Record Communication Skills. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 2016. 34(6): p. 254-281.
  67. Patras Carvalho, K., Knowledge sharing behaviors: A descriptive case study to explore the knowledge sharing behaviors of medical doctors in a community hospital located in the Northeastern United States. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 2016. 76(9-A(E)): p. No Pagination Specified.
  68. Pimentel de Araujo, F., et al., An outbreak of skin in neonates due to a Staphylococcus aures strain producing exfoliative toxin A. Infection, 2018. 46(1): p. 49-54.
  69. Powell, D., M. Hyde, and R. Punch, Inclusion in postsecondary institutions with small numbers of deaf and hard-of-hearing students: Highlights and challenges. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2014. 19(1): p. 126-140.
  70. Purighalla, S., et al., Discriminatory power of three typing techniques in determining relatedness of nosocomial isolates from a tertiary hospital in India. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2017. 35(3): p. 361-368.
  71. Rajendran, P., et al., Urinary tract infection due to , an uncommon pathogen. Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology, 2016. 59(4): p. 551-553.
  72. Ramadan, R., Unravelling Facebook: A pedagogical tool during the Syrian crisis. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 2017. 32(3): p. 196-213.
  73. Reeves, R. and E. West, Changes in inpatients’ experiences of hospital care in England over a 12-year period: a secondary analysis of national survey data. Journal of Health Services & Research Policy, 2015. 20(3): p. 131-7.
  74. Ruiz, N., The use of touch in psychotherapy: The latino client perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 2014. 75(5-B(E)): p. No Pagination Specified.
  75. Saito, F., et al., Genome-wide association study for mandibular prognathism using microsatellite and pooled DNA method. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2017. 152(3): p. 382-388.
  76. Sala-Comorera, L., et al., Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for bacterial monitoring in routine analysis at a drinking water treatment plant. International Journal of Hygiene & Environmental Health, 2016. 219(7A): p. 577-584.
  77. Scheibe, M.M., et al., Efficiency Gains for Rheumatology Consultation Using a Novel Electronic Referral System in a Safety-Net Health Setting. Arthritis care & research, 2015. 67(8): p. 1158-63.
  78. Schmitz, A., et al., Animal-assisted therapy at a University Centre for Palliative Medicine – a qualitative content analysis of patient records. BMC Palliative Care, 2017. 16(1): p. 50.
  79. Schweinberger, M., M. Petrescu-Prahova, and D.Q. Vu, Disaster response on September 11, 2001 through the lens of statistical network analysis. Social Networks, 2014. 37: p. 42-55.
  80. Sheahan, P.J., T.L. Diesbourg, and S.L. Fischer, The effect of rest break schedule on acute low back pain development in pain and non-pain developers during seated work. Applied Ergonomics, 2016. 53: p. 64-70.
  81. Shenoy, A. and J.M. Appel, Safeguarding Confidentiality in Electronic Health Records. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 2017. 26(2): p. 337-341.
  82. Singh, S., et al., Coagulase-negative staphylococci causing blood stream infection at an Indian tertiary care hospital: Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterisation. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2016. 34(4): p. 500-505.
  83. Smith, I., The Participative Design of an Endoscopy Facility using Lean 3P. BMJ Quality Improvement Reports, 2016. 5(1).
  84. Snaman, J.M., et al., Going straight to the source: A pilot study of bereaved parent-facilitated communication training for pediatric subspecialty fellows. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 2017. 64(1): p. 156-162.
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  90. Tšuiko, O., et al., Genome stability of bovine in vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos is higher compared to in vitro-produced embryos. Human Reproduction, 2017. 32(11): p. 2348-2357.
  91. Ueda, O., et al., Development of a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrum (MALDI-TOF-MS)-based typing method to identify meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2015. 90(2): p. 147-155.
  92. Vinnakota, D.N., et al., Osseointegrated silicone finger prosthesis using dental implants: a renovated technique. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 2014. 15(6): p. 818-820.
  93. Vogel, M., et al., Analysis of Documentation Speed Using Web-Based Medical Speech Recognition Technology: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2015. 17(11): p. 1-1.
  94. Walczak, A., et al., Encouraging early discussion of life expectancy and end-of-life care: A randomised controlled trial of a nurse-led communication support program for patients and caregivers. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2017. 67: p. 31-40.
  95. Walker-Vischer, L., C. Hill, and S.S. Mendez, The experience of Latino parents of hospitalized children during family-centered rounds. Journal of Nursing Administration, 2015. 45(3): p. 152-7.
  96. Wallis, K. and R. Tuckey, Safer Prescribing and care for the elderly (SPace): feasibility of audit and feedback plus practice mail-out to patients with highrisk prescribing. Journal of Primary Health Care, 2017. 9(2): p. 145-152.
  97. Warr, J.K., et al., Feasibility of using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemesis Tool for assessment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre. Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice, 2015. 21(5): p. 348-57.
  98. Weigelt Marom, H. and N. Weintraub, The effect of a touch-typing program on keyboarding skills of higher education students with and without learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 2015. 47: p. 208-217.
  99. Weisner, C.M., et al., Examination of the effects of an intervention aiming to link patients receiving addiction treatment with health care: The LINKAGE clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 2016. 73(8): p. 804-814.
  100. Wen-hui, L., et al., Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis Syndrome in an Elderly Man: Case Report and Literature Review. Medicine, 2015. 94(47): p. 1-4.
  101. Wong, B.K.J., et al., Association of clinical parameters with periodontal bacterial haemolytic activity. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2016. 43(6): p. 503-511.
  102. Zenati, K., et al., Characterization of NDM-1- and OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from inanimate surfaces in a hospital environment in Algeria. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2016. 92(1): p. 19-26.
  103. Zhang, C., et al., Six-Position, Frontal View Photography in Blepharoplasty: A Simple Method. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2018. 26: p. 26.
  104. 김 진, 영., 송. 이 형, and 수. 강 인, 착상 유전진단. Journal of the Korean Medical Association / Taehan Uisa Hyophoe Chi, 2015. 58(11): p. 979-988.

These studies were excluded at screening stage –  Tangential to FC (n = 3)

  1. Donvan, J. and C. Zucker, In a different key: The story of autism. 2016, New York, NY: Crown Publishers/Random House; US.
  2. Ganz, J.B., E.R. Hong, and W. Gilliland, Aided augmentative communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Autism and child psychopathology series. 2014, New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media; US.
  3. Thyer, B. Playing whack-a-mole with pseudoscientific psychotherapies. PsycCRITIQUES, 2015. 60, No Pagination Specified DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039234

These studies were excluded at full text stage (n = 9)

  1. Saloviita, T., M. Leppanen, and U. Ojalammi, Authorship in Facilitated Communication: An Analysis of 11 Cases. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 2014. 30(3): p. 213-225. [In original review]
  2. Schlosser, R.W., et al., Facilitated Communication and Authorship: A Systematic Review. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 2014. 30(4): p. 359-368. [Original Review]
  3. Baladerian, N.J., Facilitated Communication Raises Concerns About Ethics and Training, But Not Insurmountable Concerns. Victimization of the Elderly & Disabled, 2017. 19(3): p. 51-62. [Not peer-reviewed journal]
  4. Bennett, A.E., Controversial Method for Communicating With Disabled Comes to Light in Bizarre Case. Victimization of the Elderly & Disabled, 2016. 18(5): p. 65-78. [Not peer-reviewed journal]
  5. Evans, I.M. Horse sense versus science. PsycCRITIQUES, 2015. 60, No Pagination Specified DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039592. [Book]
  6. Heinzen, T.E., S.O. Lilienfeld, and S.A. Nolan, The horse that won’t go away: Clever Hans, facilitated communication, and the need for clear thinking. 2015, New York, NY: Worth Publishers; US. [Book]
  7. Heinzen, T.E., S.O. Lilienfeld, and S.A. Nolan Distinguishing a horse from a horse of another color: A response to the review of The horse that won’t go away. PsycCRITIQUES, 2016. 61, No Pagination Specified DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0040374. [Book]
  8. International Society for, A. and C. Alternative, ISAAC position statement on facilitated communication. International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Aac: Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 2014. 30(4): p. 357-8. [Position Statement published in ISAAC materials section, not peer-reviewed]
  9. Travers, J.C., et al., Picture exchange communication system and facilitated communication: Contrasting an evidence-based practice with a discredited method, in Instructional practices with and without empirical validity. 2016, Emerald Group Publishing; United Kingdom: Bingley, United Kingdom. p. 85-110. [Book]

Contact Author: Bronwyn.Hemsley@uts.edu.au

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